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Rural #mentalhealth in Australia: Building on #strengths

  1. 62 mircoblogs about #Rural #mentalhealth in Australia and Building on our #strengths

  1.  related text: http://www.cambridge.org/au/academic/subjects/medicine/nursing/mental-health-person-centred-approach?format=PB
  1. #Rural is Multi dimensional concept…

  1. #RuralCulture… being from the bush…
  1. #RuralPlace… w/ psychological, emotional, socio-eco constructs
  1. #RuralIdentity… connection to place & people
  1. #RuralGeography…index & zones http://www.adelaide.edu.au/apmrc/research/projects/category/about_aria.html
  1. #Rural #MentalHealth – plan for 1/3 Australian population in #rural & #regional communities
  1. #mateship: Inter-relatedness #Caring #Connected #MutuallySupportive

  1. #mateship & #Rural lifestyle implications for #recovery in rural #mentalhealth
  2. #WaltzingMatilda A #rural #cultural anthem? http://www.poetrylibrary.edu.au/poets/paterson-a-b-banjo/waltzing-matilda-0026009
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #vulnerability: Rural itinerant #agricultural workforce

  1. #rural #mentalhealth #vulnerability – #loneliness & #isolation
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #vulnerability : Sleeping rough – homeless. No regular shelter
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #vulnerability: #FoodSecurity #access to #quality #foods & services
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #vulnerability: financial insecurity, petty crime, police & law matters
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #vulnerability: Loss of #hope for the future – suicide risk.
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #pressurepoints: volatile cconomic base – #agricultural influences #Walcha

  1. #rural #mentalhealth #pressurepoints: Limited access to public services & amenities
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #pressurepoints: Travel distance/time & transport & fuel
  1. #rural #mentalhealth #pressurepoints: #Environmental #vulnerability – drought, flood, rain, fire

22 #rural #mentalhealth #pressurepoints: Vocational thresholds & un/under employment

23 #rural #mentalhealth #pressurepoints: getting the stoicism balance right #nottoomuch #nottoolittle #Walcha

24 #suicide: 800,000+ people die by suicide each year – one person every 40 seconds

25 #suicide: in 2014 2,864 #Australians died

26 #suicide: Leading cause of death for #Australian #youth. (25% of total youth deaths)

27 #suicide: 65,000 people attempt suicide & 600,000 think about suicide each year #Australia

28 #rural #mentalhealth fact: 16% higher prevalence in rural communities

29 #rural #mentalhealth fact: Rural men more stoic – reluctant to seek help

30 #rural #mentalhealth fact: Rural women higher levels #depression & #anxiety

31 #rural #mentalhealth fact: Most vulnerable period 15-24 years

32 #rural #mentalhealth fact: Young rural men suicide rate double urban

33 #rural #mentalhealth fact: 85 yr+ rural men highest suicide rate

34 #rural #mentalhealth #risk: Low-socio-eco circumstances & Unemployment

35 #rural #mentalhealth #risk: Female gender and unmarried

36 #rural #mentalhealth #risk: Alcohol abuse

37 #rural #mentalhealth #risk: History of childhood sexual abuse

38 #rural #mentalhealth #risk: Poor social networks &/or small size of primary support groups

39 #rural #mentalhealth #strength: Longer duration of rural residency improves #QoL

40 #rural #mentalhealth #strength: Strong social connections

41 #rural #mentalhealth #strength: Close social proximity despite geographical distances

42 #rural #mentalhealth #strength: Open spaces – interaction with nature

43 #rural #mentalhealth #strength: Access to farm gate fresh food

44 #rural #mentalhealth #strength: Short travel times (locally)

45 #rural #mentalhealth #strength: Unique employment (ag/ mining)

46 #rural #mentalhealth #goingforward: improved political & social awareness

47 #rural #mentalhealth #goingforward: #DigitalTherapies – #ementalhealth

48 #rural #mentalhealth #goingforward: #EarlyIntervention & #Prevention

49 #rural #mentalhealth #goingforward: Progressive society for #LBGT. Reduction in #stigma #bullying #racism

50 #rural #mentalhealth #goingforward: Addressing historic issues eg royal commission sexual abuse

51 #threats #rural #mentalhealth: Reducing face-to-face services & amenities

52 #threats #rural #mentalhealth: Insufficient rural mental health public budgets

53 #threats #rural #mentalhealth: Unreliability of #internet services

54 #threats #rural #mentalhealth: #Ice, #cannabis, #drugs, #substance misuse

55 #threats #rural #mentalhealth: Economic & #rural commodity downturns

56 #threats #rural #mentalhealth: Environmental factors

57 #rural #mentalhealth#resilience #promotion: Enhancing and supporting social connection

58 #rural #mentalhealth#resilience #promotion:Invite men to seek help earlier

59 #rural #mentalhealth#resilience #promotion: Enhance & Support public & other transport infrastructure

60#rural #mentalhealth#resilience #promotion: Advocates & champions across rural sectors & politics

61 #rural #mentalhealth #resilience #promotion: Sustain self-care; satisfaction in life & hope generation

62 #rural #mentalhealth #resilience #promotion: drive & support #Digital literacy & #ementalhealth innovation

 

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14 Fred moments: When life gives you lemons!

Sometimes life delivers lemons… a bunch of set-backs, disappointments & problems… The old comeback is the idea that they are useful for making lemonade… somehow teaching us valuable life lessons, enriching us & making us strong and resilient…

Yes – that is all lovely, sweet balm… and true…  But it is the time it takes to bounce-back from the ‘lemon’ days… waiting for the lemonade to ferment into a refreshing tonic for recovery. That is where coping is a personal challenge… the recharge phase takes some doing… and some time… and some being…

Consolation  is never in the fatalistic  platitudes of well meaning comforters:

there must be something better waiting for you…

it must have been meant to be…

It seems as though an orchard full of lemon trees have dropped ripe fruit on my doorstep these last couple of years… and yes… with each squeeze through the juicer, I am undoubtedly getting stronger and all that! But  – how strong is strong enough… ?

I am sick of picking up lemons… it is a human thing… I am sure – I am not alone!

Recently, someone dubbed yet another difficult life moment as ‘Fred’… and in that moment, time stopped… a vortex slurped up all the stuffed up hopes, dreams and aspirations that had accumulated for me… and then, spat them out… back to earth, with a thud… the Fred files are the result. OK – overly dramatic – but you get the idea!

Who is Fred… ?

Fred is not a real person… Fred is gender neutral… Fred is made upfictitious… and does not represent anyone person… or any one place… Fred is a process… Fred is a feeling… Fred is an emotion… Fred is a frustration…. Fred is a word to use when there seems to be no other polite vocabulary that will convey an adequate strength of meaning… Fred is not confined to time or space, place or person… Fred is… what ever we need Fred to be as we wait for the lemonade to brew…

We all know Fred…

TIP: Don’t hang out with Fred too long…  bad company to keep… choose your friends carefully and move on to the lemonade sipping brigade as soon as you can… but in the meantime, safe processing of lemon moments in life, where no one gets hurt, no harm is done… is OK!

1. Troublesome Fred

Today marks the beginning of a two week campaign to vanquish  the ‘Fred’ moment in my life… Fred is made-up…. made-up of a few frustrations of late… and he is getting in the way of my fun…

…as a #GlassHalfFull measure…

I am going to have some fun with all things ‘Fred’…

Nemesis Fred…. ‪#‎DropDeadFred‬‪ #‎GetLostFred‬ !

In the virtual world… Fred will come off second best… so here we go… buckle up and get ready for the ride….

To get us in the mood… cast your memory back to the 90’s a movie where a girl, turned young woman, had a troublesome imaginary friend ‘DropDeadFred’ who got in the way … a lot… here is the trailer…

 

The #GlassHalfFull – Don’t let Fred get in the way and screw things up!!

Read on this is just the first of 14 ways to regain a balanced perspective, refill the half empty glass and …  #GetLostFred!

2. Caveman Fred

Fred Flintstone … All of us, that grew up in the late 60’s and 70’s will remember being glued to the black and white TV watching the cartoons… featuring FRED Flintstone… not so bad a memory on a cold school holiday during the ‘Morning Shows’ in the bush… Yabba Dabba Do and all that…

But really…?!  What the…. A privileged middle-aged caveman who thinks it is OK to yell at his (long suffering) wife – Wilma- the second he wakes up… Whenever he gets home from work… Whenever he doesn’t like something…and, who often leaves a lot to be desired as a best friend to Barney next door… rude, and on the brink of bullying…??

I am re-thinking the virtues of Fred Flintstone… yelling abuse at others to get them to do stuff for you, or becasue they didn’t do things the way you wanted them to is pretty rotten… Alpha friend/colleague… coercive and nasty… not a team player… #GetLostFred

‪#‎GlassHalfFull‬ – Play nice… be kind… you don’t have to always win… Care about others feelings and experiences too … Don’t be a primal caveman to others, and they will probably be nice back at you… win:win.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Flintstone

Fred

3. A pinch of Fred

My local New England bushranger (1800’s) Tunderbolt... aka Fred Ward… The nerve of him…!  A robber… thieving and conniving… Unjustly pinching the opportunities of others... ‪#‎GetLostFred‬

‪#‎GlassHalfFull‬ … It didn’t end well for Fred…/ Thunderbolt… My family folklore has it that my ancestors provided him with hospitality – a cuppa and a meal upon his assistance from time to time… but they didn’t get robbed in the process…

Be hospitable any way… even to the #@*&^!’s in life – you may be sparred the worst of it!

tunderbolt

4. Smooth Talk Fred

‘Prof’ Fred Dagg  and his discourse on luck politics…‘We don’t know how lucky we are’… apparently we need Fred to point out our luck to us… even when things are clearly in bad shape… and heading for the cliff edge…

Fred’s definition of Luck: The art of  reframing  the hardship, endurance, blood, sweat and tears of others as as your own hard won ‘luck’…. With the gift of the gab… Fred can smooth talk as though it was a fine art… but, often the analysis is only skin deep, a bit slim on quality and detail….. https://mrjohnclarke.bandcamp.com/album/fred-dagg-anthology

#GlassHalfFull…. Halve Fred’s luck… wise up….stop falling falling for that ‘old chestnut’!  Expect evidence… substance… outputs… compare apples and apples… stay away from the tropical fruit salad… a recipe for bad luck!

5. Frederick the Great – King of Bureaucracy

I don’t know much about Prussia and germanic politics… but… any Fred who played a part in modernising bureaucracy should be under some scrutiny… rules, policies, guidelines, processes, roll outs, wind ups and wind downs… even double dissolutions… All of which are designed to exclude anyone you don’t like by using erroneous criteria to suit your own ends, biases and prejudice… (such as ethnicity in Fred’s case, he picked on the Jews).
 
In Australia’s case, Frederick the Great exclusion tactics are recognisable where … distressed and terrified people who arrive on a boat (with particular exception of any people arriving and failing to proceed according the laws of the land… in the 1800’s), ….people with a sexuality that happens not to fit in with the political constitution, ….people with a climate science perspective that is opposed to trashing the environment, ….anyone who is passionate and rocks the status quo… eventually falling silent as the bureaucracy cogs turn…
 
A nod to Bureaucracy Gone Mad and played hard… Link says it all… Fred is not so great#GetLostFred
 
 
#GlassHalfFull Taking the mickey… ‘Frederick the Grate’ https://thefredsociety.com/famous-freds/ruling-freds/1317-2/ #GetLostFred

6. Cuppa tea Fred

 

Cuppa-Tea-Fred aka Squeaky-Door-Fred
 
Hasty Fred… doesn’t take the time to consider, to think…. to understand the consequences of his loud mouth or presumptive actions… just jumps in too early… Often just the noisy wheel… getting all the attention under the guise of ‘problem solver’ or ‘action hero’.
 
Why do people keep blindly following him…? He clearly hasn’t got a clue!
 
#GlassHalfFull – At least there is tea!

 

7. Fred thinks he’s sexy…

Everyone else thinks he is narcissistic… but he doesn’t care – it’s all about him after all… isn’t it…?! #GetLostFred

Narcissism: Excessive interest in or admiration of oneself and one’s physical appearance.

Psychology Extreme selfishness, with a grandiose view of one’s own talents and a craving for admiration, as characterizing a personality type.

Psychoanalysis Self-centredness arising from failure to distinguish the self from external objects, either in very young babies or as a feature of mental disorder.

#GlassHalfFull call it what it is… If it looks like a duck, sounds like a duck, behaves like a duck… it is probably is a duck… herd the duck/s!

 

8.  Fred – It’s your turn to buy the beers

This link will take you what could well be the worst children’s story on the planet…!  ‘Fred the Bread’... http://www.storyjumper.com/book/index/11738052/Fred-the-Bread#page/20

Fred loves all the glory… loves the glamorous lifestyle… but, he is that guy that never takes his turn to shout the drinks round at the bar… but he will drink any beer that someone else buys him…

In the story… Fred couldn’t get himself organised despite the convenience of his fast car… to head out to the shops to  buy a present for the birthday boy… but he was happy to go to the party anyway! Fred…Insight-less… has poor judgement… it’s all about him… and his fun… bugger the rest.

#GlassHalfFull  Only ever send this Fred one invitation to a party. Learn your lesson the first time… off the Christmas Card List with this type of Fred… #GetLostFred

Warning: please don’t read this story to a real child!

9. Patronising Fred…

This time not strictly Fred… but rather Fred’s ‘person’… But you know the type… patronising… setting the goal posts… then… shifting them when you get close to kicking a goal. #GetLostFred

#GlassHalfFull – Be more clever… beat Fred at his own game… and win.

 

10 On ya bike Fred

Being a bit-of-a-Fred,  defined as: Someone who has got all the gizmo’s, thinks he has a clue… but IQ seems AWOL… and doesn’t now when to stop… always has a bizarre idea… an idea that is just not needed… an idea that doesn’t add value… and is just a clumsy add-on… #GetLostFred

For example… in the bike world… “Fred” is a cyclist who has a ton of cycling gear, especially of the utilitarian “uncool” kind, like mirrors, powerful lights, fenders, bells/horns, heavy leather seats, racks, reflective gear, bags, baskets, etc. The gear and bike may be put together by kludgey homemade solutions, like duct-taped flashlights to the handlebar. This type of Fred is a bike geek who likes/needs lots of gear (even if it is modified stuff not intended for bikes) ….no matter what …others think. …these type of Fred can be well aware of their fredness, once they are aware of the concept, and often embrace it wholeheartedly….

(https://biskey7.wordpress.com/2011/04/02/bicycling-are-you-a-fred/)

#GlassHalfFull You can’t teach an Old Fred New Tricks…  Choose the battle carefully – give up bike riding and take up a new hobby… leave Fred to all the duct tape… Don’t try and save the situation… learn when to trade in your bike helmet for bighter horizons with less duct tape!

11. Irritating Fred

Monotonous… irritating, objectionable… and Fred (this time: Fred Hanna from Ireland) wins the award… What could be worse than a Fred-kind-of-a-day… A Fred playing an accordion… Yes an accordion…  Possibly the worse instrument known to humankind! #GetLostFred,  and don’t forget to take the accordion with you!

 

 

#GlassHalfFull – It could be worse… especially if Fred plays the recorder as well… count your lucky stars it is only the accordion… ‘there is always someone worse off’ (traditional Grandmother-style -wisdom).

12 Going round in circles with Fred: Chicken or egg?

Fred has us all going around in circles… just when we think a decision has been made, a path has been set… That is exactly the moment when Fred makes sure the sands shift again. He just can’t decide which came first… all chickens and eggs! Drives all the reasonable and logical types to distraction…. Fred loves structural destabilization  – he has to be the Important One – to everyone… He can’t stand it if someone shows him up by revealing a bit of promise, a touch of anothers success … a lower social echilon that is a little bit to0 clever-for-their-own-good…. he makes a feast of  –  because he has too… he has too  – for fear of his own discintergration.  #GetLostFred

Which comes first the chicken or the egg?

#GlassHalfFull  – Frederick McCubbin has a pretty little story about chickens…  if the answer is chicken…. then make it a free range chickens…  (https://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/explore/collection/artist/3545/)

Autumn morning, South Yarra 1916

Frederick McCUBBIN

Dd101539

#GlassHalfFull  – If the answer is egg – make it Scrambled Eggs. Scramble Fred’s eggs… No egg – no more chickens…  Eggs on toast – as often as required!

13 Impostor Freddy sucking the life out of the game…

Lyrics:
Verse 1:
We’re waiting every night
to finally roam and invite
newcomers to play with us
for many years we’ve been all alone

We’re forced to be still and play
The same songs we’ve known since that day
An imposter took our life away
Now we’re stuck here to decay

Pre-Chorus:
Please let us get in!
don’t lock us away!
We’re not like what you’re thinking

We’re poor little souls
who have lost all control
and we’re forced here to take that role

We’ve been all alone
Stuck in our little zone Since 1987
Join us, be our friend
or just be stuck and defend
after all you only got

Chorus: x2
Five Nights at Freddy’s
Is this where you want to be
I just don’t get it
Why do you want to stay

Verse 2:
We’re really quite surprised
We get to see you another night
You should have looked for another job
you should have said to this place good-bye

It’s like there’s so much more
Maybe you’ve been in this place before
We remember a face like yours
You seem acquainted with those doors

 

#GetLostFred

#GlassHalfFull Find a new game to play… somewhere away from the lurking, mischievous, self-serving…  Freddys’. Be brave… ‘there is so much more’

14 Fair Go Fred

Ending the Fred 14 with a flourish of hope… Crown Prince Fredrik of Denmark  – Nice-Guy-Fred… they’re not all bad. http://denmark.dk/en/society/monarchy/the-crown-prince/

Give us a go Fred… you seem like you can be a nice guy. You can play nice… but you have to want to … so – give us a go! Please! Spare us half a chance… you are the kind of Fred that needs a partner… together we can go far just give us a  #FairGoFred.

#Glass Half Full – Take a chance… caution to the wind…  See a chance and  chase appealing opportunities all the way throughout the rabbit hole… be stronger, be wiser, and be internationally credible… Take a risk… Select a good Fred in preference to a bad Fred everyday… leave the #GetLostFred’s for dust…

Detox Fred

You’ve come a long way – with me… thank you for sharing a glass of virtual lemonade with me… Cheers…

One final thought – make sure you recharge well…. check this out for a ‘how to guide’… https://hbr.org/2016/06/resilience-is-about-how-you-recharge-not-how-you-endure

Cheerio Fred!

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#EMentalHealth: Digital interventions blended with traditional care.

 

…what is E Mental Health?

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E Mental Health has been around for the last 50 years, perhaps more, in a rudimentary fashion using two-way radio and landline telephones. The idea of consulting with, and supporting, patients (and their families) using communication technology is well established. We have been using telephone services in mental health for many years, but in recent times, E Mental Health has snowballed to include a wide range of electronic and digital technologies enabling mental health promotion, early intervention and longer-term treatments in both stand-alone and blended care formats.

Increasingly, it is seen as a viable and cost effective strategy to integrate or blend care within a comprehensive suite of mental health service delivery options, making it possible to help more people at a time and place of convenience to them (Wilson R. L. & Usher, 2015). A wide range of digital interventions are emerging, however not all of them has been validated for safety and efficacy in clinical trials. Never-the-less, it is known that positive engagement in mental health interventions (especially where behaviour change is required) is improved where technology-based strategies are included in either standalone or blended therapies (Alkhaldi et al., 2016). Digital interventions can be described as “programs that provide information and support – emotional, decisional and/or behavioural – for physical and/or mental health problems via a digital platform” (Alkhaldi et al., 2016; Bailey et al., 2010).

E Mental Health is expanding into new and exciting areas of practice, and for clinicians and health researchers, this is a particularly dynamic time. The general community are engaged and ready to use E Mental Health innovation (Fox & Duggan, 2012). More than that… people now expect to find useful mental health information, support and even treatment in digital formats (Fraser, Randell, DeSilva, & Parker, 2016). People expect to access E Mental Health in a range of forms as simply and quickly as pulling their smart phones out of their pockets. Increasingly, a ground swell exists for self-care E Mental Health and this is gaining widespread popularity (Alkhaldi et al., 2016). Many people prefer to receive, information, guidance and even treatment in the privacy, and comfort of their own homes where they remain connected to their place and daily practical life competencies that underpin their optimal wellbeing (Bissell, 2013).

The 21st Century E Mental Health reality is that health care professionals can deploy a virtual mental health clinic in the pocket, handbag, or backpack of the majority of people in the developed world, and for many people in developing countries also (Brusse, Gardner, McAullay, & Dowden, 2014; Wilson, Ranse, Cashin, & McNamara, 2013). The global opportunity that is available by using the personal Internet connected smart devices of individuals everywhere has enormous potential and capacity to promote mental health, and to reduce the burden of global mental illness (ICT Data and Statistics Division Telecommunication Development Bureau Geneva Switzerland International Telecommunications Union., 2012; Proudfoot, 2013). These are exciting times.

3 main categories for E Mental Health services:

  • Voice/Text/SMS
  • Video
  • Web 1 & 2.

voice & text…

            examples…

  • Two-way radio UHF services where mobile or cell phone coverage is poor (for example, Royal Flying Doctors Service in remote regions of Australia).
  • Call centre-based services to triage and arrange intake or referral to individuals seeking entry to mental health care services (for example NSW Health free call numbers in Australia) (Elsom, Sands, Roper, Hoppner, & Gerdtz, 2013).
  • Call centre-based services to crisis mental health help lines (for example Australian services such as: Lifeline, Suicide Call Back Service, Kids Help Line). Similar services are available in most countries where free public mental health care services/insurance also exist.
  • Most countries have an emergency service free call telephone number such as 000 in Australia, 911 in USA, 112 in Europe and 999 (or 112) in the UK.
  • Mobile/cell phone SMS or text-based services (“Nancy Lublin: Texting that saves lives,” 2012).

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video…

            examples…

  • Telepsychiatry – frequently refered to as video links between health services where the consumer or patient and/or carer is in one location, while the specialist mental health clinician/s are in a separate location. A synchronised time is arranged to make a private video consultation link-up. This allows people to receive specialist care without the need to travel to a far away appointment in a distant location (for example Queensland Health (Queensland Health., 2013; Statewide telehealth services., 2013) and )
  • More recently Skype has provided a platform that enables flexible video based consultation and added an element of convenience and simplified technology.

web 1 & web 2…

            examples…

  • Email usage and web browser literacy is now generally considered to be a basic life skill for adults, where an integration of web literacy develops as people are able to explore, build and connect relevant information that is useful to them and for solving a range of problems from a self help perspective. For example: Browser search engines such as Google and associated free email host services such as gmail have provided a virtual and digital context where people are more able to search for health information aligned with their health needs and specific health question.
  • Web 1 has provided a platform for health care professionals to develop static information and education resources for the general public (for example: beyond blue, black dog), and also website based intervention tools. For example Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (“myCompass. Introductory video,” 2010) and Mindfulness Based Therapy.
  • E Mental Health electronic patient records such as the European E health action plans and in Australia (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare., 2016).
  • Call centre-based services have been able to add value to their telephone services, by providing extra general information on website connected to their services so that they can support callers further. (For example: Lifeline)
  • Web 2 has expanded the options available even further by integrating all other options with a synchronous real time, and asynchronous convenient times, social media enhanced interactive experience that is particularly convenient to the general population, and it is this element of E Mental Health that offers particular promise as new service and interventions are developed.
  • Smart devices, and especially smart phones, facilitate the opportunity to utilise apps to enhance the mental health service portfolio, with many apps currently available as information or treatment services.
  • Personal electronic accessories such as fitness monitoring devices (eg fitbit or the apple watch) that sync activity levels, such as heart rate, calorie consumption, with smart device diary tools to monitor health characteristics and behavioural change. Fitbit has demonstrated effectiveness as a monitoring tool to enhance engagement in self-care and promoting health and wellbeing generally. The integration of these personal monitors into health care is gradually occurring.
  • Gamification in E Mental Health, enhancing engagement in mental health self-care, and gaming-based interventions is an area of particular growth. Gamification introduces a fun and engaging way to interact with health promotion, digital intervention and to foster behavioural change with the added incentives and motivation of providing rewards for efforts. Some gamification is simple and brief such as gif files that prompt and guide breathing to assist in reducing the experience of panic or anxiety.
  • More advanced gamification is used to connect with various populations, for example, young people. Integrating gamification software strategies into mental health promotion and strategies will target at risk populations.
  • Social media is a useful platform for teaching the public, student health professionals and less engaged experienced clinicians about mental health information and clinical skill development. We know that many health professions students prefer to gain their discipline information for social media such as Facebook (Usher et al., 2014). We also know that a growing number of health professionals are using social media to create virtual communities for research, practice, knowledge exchange and mentoring purposes.

blended capacity…

The common usage of personal smart phones and access to computers and other smart devices has driven a level of integration so that we are now in an era where voice, video and web-based resources are available, and often in a blended format so that all three can be use simultaneously and either in synchronous or asynchronous formats. This provides service users and service providers with a level of flexibility and convenience not seen previously.

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commercial & social enterprise influence in the E Mental Health arena…

Plenty of innovation in the field of E Mental Health is occurring at a rapid pace, with commercial and social enterprises quick to respond to the global appetite to address mental health problems generally. There are many apps and websites to choose from – some with costs, others free to access. This dynamic has both risks and benefits associated with it.

benefits…

  • A general population wide awareness and expectation about accessing mental health information and support in an electronic environment.
  • Populations skilled and literate in the use of electronic devices and digital technologies such as apps, web site navigation, email and social media.

risks and limitations…

  • The trustworthiness, reliability, dependability and credibility of many E Mental Health activities in the commercial and social zones are not known because E Mental Health research and development occur at a slower pace than the commercial and social environment, and with a rigorous process to demonstrate efficacy and patient safety. Thus, health service providers and clinicians are reluctant to engage in E Mental Health initiatives with out best practice rigour to support their practice.
  • Clinical trials take a significant amount of time, planning, design and testing to underpin evidence to support safe practice. In the context of the rapid pace of change in the E environment generally, this poses a challenge.
  • Not all clinicians are keen adopters of social media generally. Thus a digital literacy and skills base has not dominated the health environment generally to date. The mental health workforce is aging in the international sphere, and as younger and digitally literate workforce enter the mental health professions they will bring with them the ease and comfort of existing and operating in the various web environments (Wilson et al., 2013).

opportunities for safe E Mental Health development…

E Mental Health holds great promise for mental health care now, and into the future. There are some gaps at present, and there is a significant need for ongoing research to develop practice-ready tools to contribute to a blended care delivery system (Fraser et al., 2016). Blended care includes elements of face-to-face and online or electronic components of clinical mental health care.

Mental health clinicians and researchers need to develop and refine their skills in the use of e health care technologies – especially in regard to web-based tools, apps and social media (Wilson et al., 2013). Encouragingly, students in the health professions indicate that they are likely to have a strong grasp of electronic health care and information transfer because they bring pre-existing web-savvy skills to their pre-qualification studies (Usher et al., 2014).

Governments and funding bodies increasingly anticipate the incorporation of strategic E Mental Health care into health service delivery systems, because it aligns with economic business plans and population distribution plans (Department of Health., 2015; E-mental health strategy for Australia, 2012; European Commission, 2012).

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in summary…

  • E Mental Health is not new, but it is expanding at a rapid pace, driven by consumer demand and heath service financial constraints to deliver more services with limited budgets
  • Three main avenues exist for E Mental health: Voice/ text; video; and Web 1 & 2.
  • Opportunities exist to build safe E Mental Health into the future as research and development collaborate with willing practitioners to create a evidence base to support best practice in the E Mental Health field.

References

Alkhaldi, G., Hamilton, F. L., Lau, R., Webster, R., Michie, S., & Murray, E. (2016). The effectiveness of prompts to promote engagement with digital interventions: a systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(1), e6. doi:10.2196/jmir.4790

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare. (2016). Safety in E Health.   Retrieved from http://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/safety-in-e-health/

Bailey, J., Murray, E., Rait, G., Mercer, C., Morris, R., Peacock, R., . . . Nazareth, I. (2010). Interactive computer-based interventions for sexual health promotion. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9(CD006483). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006483.pub2.

Bissell, D. (2013). Virtual infrastructures of habit; the changing intensities of habit through gracefulness, restlessness and clumsiness. Cultural Geographies, 0(0), 1-20.

Brusse, C., Gardner, K., McAullay, D., & Dowden, M. (2014). Social Media and Mobile Apps for Health Promotion in Australian Indigenous Populations: Scoping Review. J Med Internet Res, 16(12), e280. doi:10.2196/jmir.3614

Department of Health. (2015). e-Health.   Retrieved from http://www.ehealth.gov.au/internet/ehealth/publishing.nsf/content/home

E-mental health strategy for Australia. (2012). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/D67E137E77F0CE90CA257A2F0007736A/$File/emstrat.pdf.

Elsom, S., Sands, N., Roper, C., Hoppner, C., & Gerdtz, M. (2013). Telephone survey of service-user experiences of a telephone-based mental health triage service. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 22, 437-443.

European Commission. (2012). eHealth Action Plan 2012-2020 – Innovative healthcare for the 21st century. Retrieved from Brussels: file:///Users/rhondawilson/Downloads/eHealthActionPlan2012-2020.pdf

Fox, S., & Duggan, M. (2012). Mobile Health 2012: Half of smartphone owners use their devices to get health information and one-fifth of smartphone owners have health apps Retrieved from California Health Care Foundation: E Mental Health.docx

Fraser, S., Randell, A., DeSilva, S., & Parker, A. (2016). Research Bulletin: E-mental health: the future of youth mental health? Retrieved from Orygen Youth Health: https://orygen.org.au/Our-Research/Research-Areas/Online-Interventions-and-Innovation/Orygen-Research-Bulletin-E-Mental-Health.aspx

ICT Data and Statistics Division Telecommunication Development Bureau Geneva Switzerland International Telecommunications Union. (2012). Mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, 2001-2011 (Excel Spreadsheet) Retrieved from http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/material/excel/2011/Mobile_cellular_01-11.xls.

. from Telecommunication Development Bureau Geneva, Switzerland: International Telecommunications Union. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/material/excel/2011/Mobile_cellular_01-11.xls.

 

. myCompass. Introductory video. (2010). In B. D. I. m. program (Producer). Australia: Black Dog Institute.

Nancy Lublin: Texting that saves lives. (2012, April 2012). TED talks. Ideas worth spreading. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/nancy_lublin_texting_that_saves_lives.html

Proudfoot, J. (2013). The future is in our hands: The role of mobile phones in the prevention and management of mental disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(2), 111-113.

Queensland Health. (Producer). (2013, 7 March 2013). Telehealth. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/notes/queensland-health/telehealth/379845328790222

Statewide telehealth services. (Writer). (2013). Extending the reach of clinical health services throughout Queensland . In Q. health (Producer). Australia: Queensland health.

Usher, K., Woods, C., Casella, E., Glass, N., Wilson R. L., Mayner, L., . . . P., I. (2014). Australian health professions student use of social media. Collegian, 21(2), 95-101. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2014.02.004

Wilson R. L., & Usher, K. (2015). Rural nurses: A convenient co-location strategy for rural mental health care of young people. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 1-11. doi:DOI: 10.1111/jocn.12882

Wilson, R. L., Ranse, J., Cashin, A., & McNamara, P. (2013). Nurses and Twitter: The good, the bad, and the reluctant. Collegian(0). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2013.09.003

 

Future Nurses: resilient, transformative & tech savvy

Practice-informed nursing: The future of transformative nursing education and research in a technological context

steth and ecg

Three significant factors will impact on the future of nursing education and research in Australia

  1.  Entrenchment of a culture of patient safety among practice-ready graduates while offering transformative educational experiences to nursing students and building resilient communities. Rural and regional communities, Indigenous people, and international inclusiveness and connectivity will be particularly important.
  2.  Entrepreneurial nursing academics will be pivotal in developing innovative ways to fund practice and research projects; deliver quality-learning programs; and produce a strategic mix of research outputs. This is critical because of cuts to funding across the higher education sector and increasing competition for research grants.
  3. Capitalising on E Health – using the term broadly to cover not only storing, retrieving, maintaining and sharing patient records safely and effectively, but also electronic health service delivery assisted by communications technologies, such as web-conferencing, internet-based interventions, and the use of apps and social media. And there’s also E Health in academia – the way that the technologies are revolutionising the teaching, learning and research environment for nursing. Nursing academics’ expertise in E Health technologies will undoubtedly need to expand in the future.

images

transformative practice informed patient safety

The health industry expects universities to produce nursing graduates who are practice-ready and proficient in delivering quality health care where patients are safe, health risk is reduced, and deterioration is detected and responded to quickly. The graduates must be prepared for the high acuity of workplaces in the health sector, and must possess the indispensable attribute of resilience. Industry also expects graduates to be skilled in collaborative teamwork and capable of leadership and supervision early in their careers (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2010; Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2014; NSW Health, 2013).

A new era in the nursing discipline is dawning where transformative models of service and care are prioritised. The transformative process surpasses the traditions of ‘evidence-based practice’ and ‘life-long learning’, which frequently uses ‘time-spent’ as a metric to determine learning outcome.

Instead, future nursing needs contemporary continuous transformative learning, and practice-informed research using continuous models that are more flexible and nimble, in order to enhance capacity to adapt to rapid changes. Preparing students to be practice-ready has become increasingly challenging within the traditional three-year degree program, where specialty themes compete for inclusion. There is a need for innovative and entrepreneurial practice-informed teaching and learning to invigorate future curriculums, in conjunction with a balanced approach to practice-informed research agendas.

Postgraduate courseware will need to align with, and adapt to, market forces. In Australia, this includes addressing the changes announced by government to create Primary Health Networks and Health Care Homes, and ensuring the supply of qualified nurses to fill posts in these national centres (for example, Credentialed Mental Health Nurses). Advocating for appropriate reimbursement of specialist nurses will be a critical driver of postgraduate education (Australian College of Mental Health Nurses, 2013).

nurse entrepreneurialism in higher education

Funding for the higher education sector has been dwindling in recent years leading to major budgetary challenges, particularly for regional universities. Popular, high-enrolment courses like Bachelor of Nursing  will continue to be important and strategic contributors to the overall university budgets.

International university ranking analysts suggest that “strongly motivated academics can offset to some degree limited funding” (Williams, Leahy, de Rassenfosse, & Jensen, 2016). Actively seeking collaborations will be vital to ensuring research funding success at the highest level, and so will serious attention to grantsmanship.

Nursing curriculum, with its expensive practicums, will undergo closer fiscal scrutiny in the future. So will other teaching related expenditure, with imperatives to maintain industry accreditation, to provide quality educational experiences for students, to have genuine consumer participation in curriculum design, and to incorporate digital and simulated pedagogies while managing cost effectiveness.

A particular challenge for nursing is to improve the impact of nursing research generally. Co-investigative nurse membership of collaborative interdisciplinary research teams has been important. A newer challenge is to move towards a position of excellence in nurse-led health research. New opportunity exists to do this, with the Australian Research Council looking to widen the definition of measurable impact to include category 2 and 3 grants, and with impact metrics increasingly linked to Google open access outputs, and international linkages including co-authorship (Williams et al., 2016).

Nurse researchers will need to be grant-ready and this includes building track record in grant success, and generating publications from their research. Concurrently, nursing scholars will need to develop industry and research linkages (including international higher degree research student intakes), together with the technological skills to generate outputs in digital domains.

safe and effective e health innovations

State and Federal governments are turning their service delivery focus and funding streams toward E Health services to meet growing expectations across the Australian consumer population (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013; Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2015). For example: digital gateways for triaging and accessing health care service provision (Department of Health, 2015), managing patient health records, and delivering, monitoring and evaluating health interventions (Christenson & Petrie, 2013; Department of Health, 2016; Department of Health, 2015; E Mental health strategy for Australia, 2012; Keast, 2016).

E Health skills will need to be recognised as a core competence in future nursing curriculums (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2015). The rise of E Health presents opportunities for nursing  with improved digital pedagogy learning design systems to produce nursing graduates who are practice-ready for the new and evolving practice domain of safe E Health. This has particular relevance for including and servicing rural and regional communities.

The nursing academy in Australia is trending against the odds. Nationally, enrolments are high, outputs and impact are strengthening despite dwindling higher education budgets for the discipline. Nursing academics will continue to drive the Australian nursing discipline into the future as they transform their focus towards practice-informed teaching and learning, practice-informed research integrated with international connectivity, and stronger collaborative relationships with the health sector and wider society.

vital signs monitor

refererences

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Internet Activity, Australia, December 2012. (8153.0). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/
  2. Australian College of Mental Health Nurses. (2013). A Survey of Credentialed Mental Health Nurses working in the Mental Health Nursing Incentive Program.
  3. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2015). Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care Annual Report 2014/15. Retrieved from http://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/
  4. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2010). National Consensus Statement: Essential Elements for Recognising and Responding to Clinical Deterioration. (pp. 1-24). Sydney: Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC).
  5. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Healthcare. (2016). Safety in E Health. Retrieved from http://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/
  6. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Primary Health Network (PHN) data. Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/
  7. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014). Australia’s Hospitals 2013-14. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Health and Welfare:http://www.aihw.gov.au/
  8. Australian Research Council. (2016). 2015-2016 State of Australian University Research ERA National Report. Retrieved from: http://www.arc.gov.au/
  9. Best, O. (2015). The cultural safety journey: An Australian nursing context. In O. Best & B. Fredericks (Eds.), Yardjuligin: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nursing and Midwifery Care (pp. 51-73). Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
  10. Christenson, H., & Petrie, K. (2013). Information technology as the key to accelerating advances in mental health care. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(2), 114-116.
  11. Department of Health. (2015). Australian Government Response to Contributing Lives, Thriving Communities – Review of Mental Health Programmes and Services. Canberra: Australian Government Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/
  12. Department of Health. (2016). Health Budget 2016–17. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/
  13. Department of Health. (2015). e-Health. Retrieved from http://www.ehealth.gov.au/
  14. E-mental health strategy for Australia. (2012). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/
  15. Godbold, N., & McCaffery, K. (2015). Improving care by listening: care communication and shared decsion-making Communicating quality and safety in health care (pp. 164-175). Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
  16. Keast, K. (2016). How technology will advance nursing practice. Retrieved from http://healthtimes.com.au/
  17. Little, F., O’Brien, A., Gray, M., Wilson R. L., & Finn, A. (2015). Scoping novel rural mental health clinical placements for undergraduate nursing and social work students in Northern NSW. Final Report: 20th November 2015. Retrieved from Hunter & Central Coast Interdisciplinary Clinical Training Network:
  18. NSW Health. (2013). Policy Directive: Recognition and Management of Patients who are Clinically Deteriorating. (PD2013_049). Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health.
  19. Usher, K., Woods, C., Casella, E., Glass, N., Wilson R. L., Mayner, L., . . . P., I. (2014). Australian health professions student use of social media. Collegian, 21(2), 95-101. doi:10.1016/j.colegn.2014.02.004
  20. Williams, R., Leahy, A., de Rassenfosse, G., & Jensen, P. (2016). U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems 2016. Retrieved from http://www.universitas21.com/
  21. Wilson, R. L., Ranse, J., Cashin, A., & McNamara, P. (2013). Nurses and Twitter: The good, the bad, and the reluctant. Collegian(0). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2013.09.003
sunset tractor 'retired'

The politics of rural mental health

Yesterday I was asked to discuss rural mental health with some other rural health colleagues in the rural and regional electoral seat of New England in Northern inland NSW on local ABC radio. With Federal Election 2016 bearing down on us (July 2, 2016) we looked at some of the pressure points for health in the electorate. Here is the audio from our discussion… hopefully this makes a useful contribution to the local debate, and advocates for fair and reasonable mental health service distribution in rural Australia – especially for our young people.

Click here to listen – happy to hear others views as well. sunset tractor 'retired'

photo credit Above New England

The youth mental health reform roller coaster: Tickets on sale now!

In Australia, moves are afoot to review and implement changes to the mental health services and programs on offer – including those offered to young people. Change always produces some tensions, and that will be the case again in this situation… but something had to give… change was needed to see equitable improvements, and none more obvious than for rural young people with mental health problems. So here we go  – join me on the slippery slope of mental health care reform roller coaster!

The media have labelled the staged funding reductions to early psychosis services as “Futures will be lost. Health fears as youth pychosis program dropped”  Read about it here: http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/futures-will-be-lost-health-fears-as-youth-psychosis-program-dropped-20160429-goi1hu.html

This begs more questions: The  future of who…? Who will be advantaged…? And, who will be disadvantaged…? How do we achieve fairer and more equitable care for all of our young people throughout Australia? There are no easy answers or solutions… to suggest there are is to reveal a flippant disregard for the complexity of meeting the mental health needs of young people today.

I’m an optimist…

I hope that the government have got this right… and that a redistribution of youth psychosis program money will benefit young rural people more equitably as a result… Of course, advocating for the equitable mental health needs of young rural people has been my long-term professional activity of mine! So, I can only hope that this new direction to send funds to the primary health networks  – will in fact work for rural and regional young people where the gaps are larger! There are some risks to note. For example, how will people be mobilised from their comfort zones to take up work in new geographical regions…? Will this be supported in the recruitment of appropriate servicing of populations? Will it really be equitable? Or just equal? Will health professionals be contracted using brokerage models as they are ‘commissioned’ for services? And, if they are, how will this new model ensure that health professionals are able to be fully employed at reasonable pay rates, in keeping with their level of expertise?  How will we mitigate the risk of under-employment of people in low population communities yet maintain equitable service levels? How will the ‘gaps be filled’?  Has this been fully considered?

equity-vs-equality

 

I don’t think that the new approach to funding of youth mental health care this is such a bad thing for rural and regional young people. I have been calling for a more equitable and inclusive distribution of the mental health dollar for many years now… (eg https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275340216_Rural_nurses_A_convenient_co-location_strategy_for_rural_mental_health_care_of_young_people )

… it has not always made me popular…

The harsh reality is that rural youth often have much longer durations of untreated mental illness, poorer access to mental health services and poorer prognosis as a result… And, the largely urban-centric models of specialist youth mental health care have not met the demands for rural youth with mental health care needs. Something needs to give a little… perhaps this new funding model will be it… But – it needs to explain how it will include nursing expertise to promote mental health among young people at its coreBecause, nurses are already there in all communities… and they represent a present resource that can be better engaged in primary care.

How will nurses be engaged in the primary mental health care of young rural people? The role of nursing in the models of care continues to be vaguely described at best in current strategy offerings… Only using nurses for managing chronic care (ie the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program) is a sure-fire for short-changing the mental health of young people… becasue… young people have simply not lived long enough to have ‘achieved’ chronic mental illness status… rendering them ineligible for government supported nursing care in the main! Thus, how will this new model of funding utilise the expertise of nurses to deliver primary mental health care to young people and mitigate the early identification and intervention end of the care spectrum problems? Remembering of course that nurses make up the largest proportion of  health professionals representing and the largest proportion of human resource for mental health service delivery throughout the country? Nurses need to be a large chunk of the journey towards successful new models of care – yet they seem to be overlooked in the latest iteration of change. Why?

I am not yet convinced the the Primary Health Networks will be the solution… but I am prepared to be open-minded about the possibilities… I hope we are seeing the beginnings of something substantially more useful than reshuffling deck chairs. I think closer federal collaboration with state health, education, family and community services and police/ justice services will bring more profitable benefits. But, while a two tier government approach persists in mental health service delivery (Federal and State/s), problems in administering equitable services will also persist with bureaucratic double-ups inevitable, ultimately soaking up some of the direct clinical and research spend potentials.

I agree with McGorry, that many gains have been achieved through the concentrating of specialist expertise in a small number of specialist services, and that it would be a shame to lose this. But, having built this considerable national human resource – if it were mobilised and dispersed across the country (for example,  the experts geographically relocated) this have a benefit of authentically redistributing the talent and in doing so benefit more people over time. Is it time to mobilise the specialist population for greater good in health service delivery? A question for health geographers and health ecologists to ponder. Will redistribution of funding trigger a wider set of conditions in communities such that mental health is more effectively promoted? I think that this is possible: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280134451_Rural_Mental_Health_Ecology_A_Framework_for_Engaging_with_Mental_Health_Social_Capital_in_Rural_Communities

It is not all bad news, a new model could bring with it ‘catch-up’ conditions to more vulnerable and harder to reach young populations who should have convenient access to local mental health support where and when they require it. The challenge is for mental health professionals to work together using digital technologies to bring us together, it is after all what we expect of our clients these days! That is, to be satisfied with e mental health/ telehealth and digital gateway (triage) delivery….

Perhaps health professionals will also need to adapt our practices in the ways that we work and collaborate with each other – building virtual centres of excellence rather than geographical catchments of excellence. In doing so, some castles will be dismantled – and new ones will emerge… shifts in the sands of time across the landscape of mental health service and evidence development and  delivery are inevitable.

It is clear that the health budget in Australia will never be able to fund sufficient levels of mental health service delivery for Australian young people – our present budgets don’t go near sufficiency. Finding ways to squeeze a few extra drops of oil out of the rag are always going to be critical… the challenge is out for mental health researchers to be prudent in devising ways in which we can continue to do more, with less, and for politicians and policy makers to take heed of evidence as it emerges… And finally, for clinicians to be ready to adapt to the changing times as they evolve. None of that is easy!

Relevant other links:

http://www.acmhn.org/news-events/mental-health-reform

http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/0DBEF2D78F7CB9E7CA257F07001ACC6D/$File/response.pdf